Introduction to Python

Questions

  • What are the basic blocks of Python language?

  • How are functions and classes defined in Python?

Objectives

  • Get a very short introduction to Python types and syntax

  • Be able to follow the rest of the examples in the course, even if you don’t understand everything perfectly.

If you are not familiar with Python, a very short introduction; first, the builtin scalar and collection types:

Scalars

Scalar types, that is, single elements of various types:

i = 42       # integer
i = 2**77    # Integers have arbitrary precision
g = 3.14     # floating point number
c = 2 - 3j   # Complex number
b = True     # boolean
s = "Hello!" # String (Unicode)
q = b'Hello' # bytes (8-bit values)

Collections

Collections are data structures capable of storing multiple values.

l = [1, 2, 3]                      # list
l[1]                               # lists are indexed by int
l[1] = True                        # list elements can be any type
d = {"Janne": 123, "Richard": 456} # dictionary
d["Janne"]
s = set(("apple", "cherry", "banana", "apple")) # Set of unique values
s

Control structures

Python has the usual control structures, that is conditional statements and loops:

x = 2
if x == 3:
    print('x is 3')
elif x == 2:
    print('x is 2')
else:
    print('x is something else')

While loops loop until some condition is met:

x = 0
while x < 42:
    print('x is ', x)
    x += 0.2

For loops loop over some collection of values:

xs = [1, 2, 3, 4]
for x in xs:
    print(x)

Often you want to loop over a sequence of integers, in that case the range function is useful:

for x in range(9):
    print(x)

Another common need is to iterate over a collection, but at the same time also have an index number. For this there is the enumerate function:

xs = [1, 'hello', 'world']
for ii, x in enumerate(xs):
    print(ii, x)

Functions and classes

Python functions are defined by the def keyword. They take a number of arguments, and return a number of return values.

def hello(name):
    """Say hello to the person given by the argument"""
    print('Hello', name)
    return 'Hello ' + name

hello("Anne")

Classes are defined by the class keyword:

class Hello:
    def __init__(self, name):
        self._name = name
    def say(self):
        print('Hello', self._name)

h = Hello("Richard")
h.say()

Python type system

Python is strongly and dynamically typed.

Strong here means, roughly, that it’s not possible to circumvent the type system (at least, not easily, and not without invoking undefined behavior).

x = 42
type(x)
x + "hello"

Dynamic typing means that types are determined at runtime, and a variable can be redefined to refer to an instance of another type:

x = 42
x = "hello"

Jargon: Types are associated with rvalues, not lvalues. In statically typed language, types are associated with lvalues, and are (typically) reified during compilation.

??? (lesson here)

Keypoints

  • Python offers a nice set of basic types as many other programming languages

  • Python is strongly typed and dynamically typed